A geographic information system (GIS) is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data. Rooted in the science of geography, GIS integrates many types of data. It analyzes spatial location and organizes layers of information into visualizations using maps and 3D scenes. (footnote citation for this text - https://www.esri.com/en-us/what-is-gis/overview)
Sources of Further Information
Tools and Software
ArcGIS - The most widely used Geographic Information Systems software suite. With it, you can create, manage, and share geographic data, maps, and analytical models using desktop and server applications.
ArcGIS for Windows - free ArcGIS download for Windows through the Yale Software Library
GeoDa - A free and open source software tool that serves as an introduction to spatial data analysis. It is designed to facilitate new insights from data analysis by exploring and modeling spatial patterns.
Further Support at Yale
Yale Center for Earth Observation GIS Data and Software - The YCEO Laboratory is a teaching and research lab for the Yale community specializing in the use of satellite-based remote sensing.