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Race and Racism in Health Care

Table of Contents

This list is not intended to be exhaustive or complete. We have attempted to bring together seminal works for those starting to understand systemic racism in healthcare. If you don't know where to start, these resources will help.

About this Page

The Race and Racism in Health Care page brings together resources for the purpose of educating and raising awareness on this important topic as it relates to health care. Additionally, we offer some useful tools and search tips for you to explore race in your own research.

This page was compiled by Cushing/Whitney Medical Library staff. We are a group of white, female librarians. While we have done our best to include perspectives of our Black, Brown, Asian, Hispanic, and Indigenous community members, we recognize there may still be implicit bias. We would be much obliged for suggestions on how we can make improvements. 

For recommendations on additional resources, questions, or concerns, contact Courtney Brombosz, Research and Education Librarian  (courtney.brombosz@yale.edu)

The Cushing/Whitney Medical Librarians aim to prioritize research and evidence synthesis focused on improving healthcare services for historically marginalized groups. By acting from a place of solidarity, we can come together to lift up the voices of those who are silenced. 

Acknowledgements: Max Jordan Nguemeni Tiako, MS, and Dr. Anna Reisman for providing the seed idea as well as suggesting links for this site.


View a larger list of citations concerning race and racism in medicine here.

Addressing Racism in Health Care

Racism and Medical Education

Racial health care disparities

Clinical research involving race and ethnicity

Searching the Literature

About to start a research or evidence synthesis project? We have brought together some helpful tips and tools when searching the literature. Consider these terms when building your search. Not all terms or tips will be applicable to every research project. Ask yourself who am I searching for, what needs to be included in my results, and how can I best describe each concept?

Searching Specific Populations

This can be challenging when searching the literature. Consider using relevant terms from the NIH Population Health Search Strategy. If you would like further assistance with using these suggested terms, please reach out to your Personal or Departmental Librarian.

Citation Chaining

What is Citation Chaining?

This practice involves exploring the citations within a piece of research but also looking at who has cited the research you're reading. Essentially, you are creating a breadcrumb trail of citations backwards and forwards in time to add depth and breadth to your search.


When you find an article of interest, open the record page and locate the right-side navigation bar. Find "Cited by" to look at who has cited your article in their own research.

Web of Science

There are a couple of places you can do this. When viewing your search results, you can look at the right of a record and click the number next time "Times Cited." From inside the record, you can click on both "Times Cited" (forward) and "Cited By" (backward) numbers to view relevant citations. 


When looking at your search results, you can locate the number of "Cited by" in the far right column. Those numbers can be clicked to quickly navigate to the list of article that have cited that particular article. Similarly, you can do the same thing within the article while also accessing article metrics for further investigation. 

Keywords and Controlled Vocabulary

It can be difficult to pull apart an incredibly intersectional issue like racism when conducting research. Here are a list of keywords and controlled vocabulary to start your research. Remember, this is a starting point and by no means exhaustive or complete. Please reach out to your Personal or Departmental Librarian for support with developing a complete search strategy. 

Keywords: racism; racist; racial bias; racial prejudice; racial discrimination; covert racism; white supremacy; white privilege; bigot; implicit bias; implicit racial bias; implicit ethnic bias; antiracist; anti-racist; anti racist; antiracism; ethnicity; racial discrimination; racial inequities; systemic racism; unconscious bias; race-related racial bias

Controlled Vocab: racism; social discrimination; social justice; prejudice 

Keywords: hospitals; clinics; telemedicine; health care system; medical system; public health; health service utilisation; healthcare outcomes; healthcare providers

Controlled Vocab: minority health; delivery of healthcare; health personnel; health services; attitude of health personnel

Health Education
Keywords: medical education; medical student; medical students; nursing students; pa students; physician assistant students; PGY1 OR PGY2 OR PGY3 OR PGY4; postgraduate OR post-graduate; residency OR resident OR residents; house staff OR housestaff; intern OR interns OR internships; trainee OR trainees

Controlled Vocab: education, medical; schools, medical; students, medical; students, public health; students, premedical; students, pharmacy; students, nursing; students, health occupations; students, dental

Health Disparities
Keywords: disparities; inequity; equity

Controlled Vocab: MEDLINE®/PubMed® Health Disparities and Minority Health Search Strategy; social responsibility; health status disparities



Racism & Health Care


Racism and Technology

Data Sources

Yale Voices

Curriculum & Syllabi

Web Resources